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U.S.A.: Horse Ownership -- A Privilege and a Responsibility
Posted on Sunday, November 06 @ 22:12:44 MST by iljiana

Horse Tips and Suggestions


The following consumer information is provided by Karen A. Kandra,
Consumer Safety Officer, Communications Staff, Center for Veterinary Medicine.

The total equine population in the U. S. numbers approximately six million, but the number of horse owners is increasing rapidly. Prospective owners must realize the extensive commitment in time and money that being a responsible owner entails, since the horse is totally dependent on its caretaker for its welfare. Whether you are lucky enough to stable the horse where you live or employ the services of a local boarding facility, there are many aspects of horse management that should be considered.


Feeding horses is a science wherein the old adage "little and often" must be followed. The horse's stomach is extremely small in relation to its overall size, so it cannot efficiently utilize a large amount of feed at one time. The bulk fiber portion (e.g., forage, pasture, hay) is the most important part of a horse?s diet. Quality grass pasture is the ideal feed for horses and often all that is required for the adult horse. In the winter, or under circumstances when pasture is not available, horses should have good quality hay that is free of dust and mold and does not contain thorny weeds or unpalatable material. In general, horses should be fed dry hay at a rate of 1.5 to 3.0 percent of their body weight. This quantity should be adjusted depending on the horse?s desired and existing condition, the quality of hay fed, and the expected activity level. Large round bales are an excellent source of hay if made properly and stored inside without exposure to the weather. They also provide activity to keep bored horses from chewing on the fences for lack of anything else to munch on. The quality of hay depends on harvesting management and species of grass or legume. The center and outside of several bales should be evaluated. Generally, the outside of the bale should be dry and light green to yellow in color. The center of the bale should be light green in color and never black or wet. Your local or state extension agent can help you evaluate hay quality.

Revised August 2002

Ideally, a horse should be fed two or even three times a day. Grain should be considered a supplement to the fiber part of the diet. Grains should be used when additional energy is necessary, or to balance the fiber portion of the diet. There are

many commercial feed mixtures available, and you should choose the proper one depending on the intended use and amount of activity your horse will have. Most feeds come in either ?textured? or ?pelletted? varieties, and each type serves a purpose. Likewise, there are feeds for different life stages, i.e., growing, mature, or senior. Most horses do not require additional vitamin supplements, if fed the appropriate commercial feed. The most important thing is DO NOT OVERFEED. Obesity in horses can negatively impact the respiratory, digestive, and skeletal systems, causing serious conditions such as colic, laminitis (founder), gastric ulcers, and lameness problems.

It goes without saying that horses should have a constant supply of fresh water. Horses on hay drink far more water than horses on pasture. It is also recommended that horses have access to a trace mineral salt block at all times.

The horse's physical condition is totally dependent on the person who feeds him. If his ribs are showing, it is likely he's not getting enough to eat (assuming he does not have parasites). Conversely, if he's obese, he's getting too much. Horses should be fed individually to be sure they get their prescribed amount. If fed in a group, there may be one who wolfs down his own feed and then runs to the other buckets before the more timid horses are finished. Progressive loss in condition despite a good appetite indicates a need for consultation with your veterinarian.

Veterinary Care

When choosing a veterinarian, select one who has an equine practice or at least sees horses 50 percent of the time. Usually you can check with your local veterinary association or other local horse owners for a referral. It is important to develop a good relationship with your veterinarian since there is bound to be a time when you will need to call the doctor out for an emergency.

Consult with your veterinarian to set up a regular vaccination program to insure against serious diseases. These may vary depending on where you reside, and the expected travel plans for your horse.

Parasites are a leading cause of death, but can be prevented by periodic de-worming and frequent removal and management of manure. Your veterinarian can recommend a specific program based on the number of horses and their environment. For example, two horses on 75 acres of pasture would not have the same exposure level as 50 horses on 75 acres. It is important to reduce the worm burden in the environment, and not just to reduce parasites in a single horse. Pastures should be well-drained and properly maintained, i.e., regular mowing and harrowing. Signs of parasites include loss of condition, tail rubbing, dull coat, diarrhea, or constipation. There are several products approved that are effective against different types of parasites.

At least annually, your veterinarian should examine the condition of the horse's mouth and "float" or file down the teeth by rasping any rough edges that may have developed on the grinders. This sharpness can cause pain and prevents the horse from chewing his food thoroughly. If you notice him dropping feed from his mouth while eating, this is a strong indication that his teeth need attention. The veterinarian may have to extract some "wolf" teeth that could interfere with the bit. This is a simple procedure, not requiring surgery or anesthesia (unlike humans).

Hoof Care

When choosing a farrier (blacksmith), it is imperative to select a reputable one, perhaps recommended by your veterinarian or other horse owners. There is much truth to the saying "no foot, no horse," and poor hoof care can take up to a year to repair. The horse's feet need trimming every 6-8 weeks, depending on growth rate, use, and environment. If you intend to ride on hard or rocky surfaces, the horse will need shoes to protect the hooves and keep them from cracking and breaking. Depending on the environment, it may be necessary to apply a dressing routinely to help keep the hooves from drying out.

General Management Recommendations

In horse management, the key word is PREVENTION. Here are some precautions to avoid a catastrophe:

  • Think safety first. Do not leave any sharp objects, i.e., wire, glass, pitchforks, etc., where a horse might injure himself.

  • Don't leave any toxic substances, i.e., paint cans, antifreeze, gasoline, or poisonous plants/trees within the horse's reach.

  • Keep electrical plugs and cords out of reach of horses.

  • Provide a vaccination program recommended by your veterinarian.

  • Feed little and often, but DO NOT OVERFEED. A horse's digestive system is very sensitive and reacts to any sudden change in diet. Consult your veterinarian regarding the appropriate diet for the horse's age and activity level.

  • Always provide shelter from bad weather with a clean place to lie down. Horses really do enjoy lying down, despite the myth that they only sleep standing up. If you don't have a barn, a 3-sided loafing shed can suffice as protection from summer sun and flies and winter wind and storms.

  • Clean fresh water (ice-free in winter) should be available at all times. This means scrubbing tubs and buckets regularly.

  • Groom horse often to remove dirt and stimulate the skin and coat.

  • Horses are happier if they have company. If you own only one horse, perhaps a neighbor's horse can suffice, or a miniature donkey, goat, or even a chicken can be a barnyard companion.

  • Horses are creatures of habit, so stick to a routine. Feed them at approximately the same times every day. If you must go away, employ the services of a dependable caretaker, and leave the phone number of your veterinarian in case of an emergency.

  • Learn first aid for minor abrasions, how to bandage wounds, and recognize when a cut needs stitches; also learn how to take the horse's temperature, pulse, and respiration. The veterinarian will ask you these vital signs when you call in an emergency.

  • The first indication of illness is generally listlessness and/or lack of appetite. The temperature should then be taken, and any elevation over 101 degrees should trigger a call to your veterinarian.

  • Pick out the hooves daily to remove stones and dirt and prevent thrush.

  • If you are new at horse-keeping, choose an advisor--an experienced stable manager--to consult when necessary, join a horse club, read horse books. There are endless sources of information on all aspects of horse management.

With proper care and nutrition your horse may live well into his 20's, and provide you with a wonderful friend and companion for years to come. The rewards of horse ownership will last a lifetime.

Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drugs

FDA is responsible for determining the marketing status (prescription or over-the-counter) of animal drug products based on whether or not it is possible to prepare ?adequate directions for use? under which a layperson can use the drugs safely and effectively. Products for which adequate directions for lay use can be written must be labeled for over-the-counter (OTC) use under existing law. If adequate directions cannot be written, the prescription (RX) system provides a method of distribution and control which is intended to assure that the RX product reaches only the hands of persons trained to use the product. This can include, in addition to the veterinarian, animal owners or managers whom the veterinarian has determined are capable of using the product safely under the practitioner?s supervision.

Safe use includes safety to the animal, safety of food products derived from the animal, safety to the person administering the drug, safety to persons associated with the animal, and safety in terms of the drug?s impact on the environment.

Effective use of a drug product assumes that an accurate diagnosis can be made with a reasonable degree of certainty, that the drug can be properly administered, and that the course of the disease can be followed so that the success or lack of success of the product can be observed.

The same drug substances can be marketed in a number of different dosage forms, intended for use by varying routes of administration, and in varying species of animals. Thus, these drug products may be labeled RX in some cases and OTC in others.

Prescription products must be labeled as follows: Caution: Federal law restricts this drug to use by or on the order of a licensed veterinarian.

Since adequate directions for safe and effective lay use cannot be written for veterinary prescription drug products, such products can only be sold to or on the prescription or other order of a licensed veterinarian. Sale of a veterinary prescription drug product to a layperson, except on a prescription or on order of a licensed practitioner, causes the product to be misbranded, and subjects the seller to civil and/or criminal provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. A licensed veterinarian may legally use or dispense a veterinary prescription drug product only within the course of his/her professional practice where a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship exists. Veterinarians employed by drug manufacturers or distributors may not legally dispense prescription drug products to laypersons unless they meet the above criteria. Similarly, practicing veterinarians or their employees may not legally sell veterinary prescription drug products to walk-in customers unless a valid veterinarian-client-patient relationship exists.

Attached is a list of the drugs that are currently approved for use in horses. It includes the active ingredients and brand names of the drugs, and indicates whether the product may be sold over-the-counter (OTC) or by prescription (RX). This is not intended to be a complete list of active ingredients or brand names available on the market. The brand names are used as examples only and their listing in no way implies any product endorsement by the Food and Drug Administration. This listing is not intended to serve as an official reference for firms or individuals dealing with the Agency.



Active Ingredients

Brand Names

Acepromazine Maleate

Prom Ace Injectable (Rx)
Promazine Injectable (Rx)


Alfavet (Rx)

Aminopromazine fumerate

Jenatone Solution (Rx)

Ampicillin Sodium

Amp-Equine (Rx)

Benzathine Penicillin G
Procaine Penicillin G

Benza-Pen (R/O)
Bicillin Fortified (Rx)
Depo Pen (R/O)
Longicil Fortified (Rx)
Flo-Cillin/Dura-Biotic (R/O)


Bapten (Rx)

Betamethasone Acetate
Betamethasone Disodium

Betavet Soluspan
Suspension (Rx)

Betamethasone Dipropionate
Betamethasone Sodium
Betasone Aqueous
Suspension (Rx)

Boldenone Undecylenate

Equipoise (Rx)

Butorphanol Tartrate

Torbugesic (Rx)
Dolorex (Rx)

Ceftiofur Sodium

Naxcel Inj. (Rx)

Chloral Hydrate
Magnesium Sulfate

Chloropent (Rx)

Deslorelin Acetate

Ovuplant (Rx)

Detomidine Hydrochloride

Dormosedan (Rx)


Azium Aqueous Suspension (Rx)
Azium Solution (Rx)
Dexachel (Rx)
Dex-A-Vet (Rx)
Dexamethasone Injection (Rx)
Dexamethasone Solution (Rx)
Zonometh Solution (Rx)

Dexamethasone Phosphate

Dexamethasone Injection (Rx)

Dexamethasone Sodium

Dex-A-Vet Injection (Rx)
Dexamethasone Injection (Rx)

Dexamethasone-21 -

Voren Suspension (Rx)

Dihydrostreptomycin Sulfate

Dihydrostreptomycin (Rx)
Pfizer-Strep (Rx)

Dinoprost Tromethamine

Lutalyse Sterile Solution (Rx)
Prostin F2 Alpha (Rx)
ProstaMate (Rx)

Doxapram Hydrochloride

Dopram-V Injectable (Rx)

Doxylamine Succinate

A-H Injection (Rx)

Lidocaine Hydrochloride

Lidocaine HCl with Epinephrine (Rx)


Anaprime (Rx)
Flucort Solution (Rx)

Flunixin Meglumine

Banamine Solution (Rx)
Flunixin Meglumine Inj. (Rx)
Flunixin Meglumine Solution (Rx)
Flunixin Injection (Rx)

Fluprostenol Sodium

Equimate (Rx)

Follicle Stimulating

F.S.H.-P Injectable (Rx)


Disal 5% Injection (Rx)
Furosemide Injection (Rx)
Lasix Injectable Solution (Rx)
Furos-A-Vet Inj. (Rx)


Guailaxin (Rx)
Gecolate Injection (Rx)
Glycodex Injection (Rx)

Hyaluronate Sodium

Equron (Rx)
Hyalovet (Rx)
Hylartin V (Rx)
Legend (Rx)
Synacid (Rx)

Hyaluronic Acid

Hyvisc (Rx)
Hyalovet (Rx)

Imidocarb Diproprionate

Imizole Equine Inj. (Rx)

Isoflupredone Acetate

Predef 2X (Rx)


Ketofen (Rx)

Luprostiol Sterile Sol.

Equestrolin (Rx)

Mepivacaine Hydrochloride

Mepivacaine HCl Inj. (Rx)


Robaxin-V Injectable (Rx)

Methylprednisolone Acetate

Depo-Medrol (Rx)
Methylprednisolone Acetate Inj. (Rx)


Equiproxin 10% Solution (Rx)

Neostigmine Methylsulfate

Stiglyn 1-500 (Rx)

Oleate Sodium

Osteum Solution 50 mg (Rx)


Palosein (Rx)


Oxytocin Injection (Rx)
Xytocin Inject. (Rx)

Penicillin G Benzathine Penicillin G Procaine

Combicillin, Combicillin-AG (R/O)

Penicillin G Procaine

Pro-Pen G in Aqueous Susp. (R/O)

Pentazocine Lactate

Talwin-V (Rx)


Bizolin Injection 20% (Rx)
Butazolidin Injectable (Rx)
Equi Bute Injection (Rx)
Equiphen (Rx)
Phen-Buta-Vet Inj. (Rx)
Phenylbutazone Inj. (Rx)
Robizone Injectable 20% (Rx)
Tevcodyne Injectable (Rx)
Therazone Inj. (Rx)

Pituitary Luteinizing

P.L.H. Injectable (Rx)

Polysulfated Glycosamino-

Adequan Injectable (Rx)

Pralidoxime Chloride

Protopam (Rx)


Ramosone (Rx)

Prednisolone Acetate

Meticortelone Susp. (Rx)

Prednisolone Sodium

Prednisolone Inj. (Rx)
Solu-Delta Cortef (Rx)

Prednisolone Tertiary

Suspension (Rx)


Meticorten (Rx)

Procaine Penicillin G

Crysticillin 300 A.S. Veterinary (R/O)
Crystaline Pro Penicillin G (Rx)
Microcillin-Ag (OTC)
Procaine Penicillin G (OTC)
Penicillin G Procaine (OTC)

Promazine Hydrochloride

Promazine Injectable (Rx)
Sparine Injection (Rx)
Tranquazine Injection (Rx)


Synchrocept Solution (Rx)

Pyrilamine Maleate

Histavet-P (Rx)
Pyrilamine Maleate Injection (Rx)

Selenium Vitamin E

E-SE (Rx)

Sodium Pentobarbital

Somnopentyl Injection (Rx)

Sodium Thiamylal

Anestatal Inj. (Rx)
Sodium Thiamylal Injection (Rx)
Surital (Rx)


Winstrol-V (Rx)


Di-Trim 48% Inj. (Rx)
Tribrissen 48% Inj. (Rx)


Agribon Inj. 40% (R/O)


Tetracycline Inj. (Rx)

Thialbarbitone Sodium

Kemithal L.A. (Rx)

Ticarcillin Disodium

Ticillin (Rx)

Tolazine Hydrochloride

Tolazine Injection (Rx)

Triamcinolone Acetonide

Triamcinolone Susp. (Rx)
Vetalog Inj. (Rx)


Vetame Inj. (Rx)

Tripelennamine Hydro-

Re-covr Injectable (Rx)

Xylazine Hydrochloride

Anased (Rx)
Chanizine Inj. (Rx)
Rompun Injectable (Rx)
Sedazine (Rx)


Active Ingredients

Brand Names


Regu-Mate (Rx)


Camvet Horse Wormer Paste 45% (OTC)
Camvet Horse Wormer Pellets (OTC)
Camvet Suspension Horse Wormer (Rx)

Clenbuterol Hydrochloride

Ventipulmin Syrup (Rx)


Azium Boluses (Rx)
Azium Oral Solution (Rx)
Azium Powder (Rx)

Active Ingredients

Brand Names


Equigard (OTC)

Dithiazanine Iodide
Piperazine Citrate

Dizan Suspension with Piperazine (OTC)

Doxylamine Succinate

A-H Tablets (Rx)


Rintal Paste (OTC)
Rintal Suspension (OTC)


Panacur Suspension 10% (OTC)
Safe-Guard Panacur (OTC)
Safe-Guard Panacur Paste (OTC)

Flunixin Meglumine

Banamine Granules (Rx)
Banamine Paste (Rx)


Fulvicin U/F Bolus Veterinary (Rx)
Fulvicin U/F Powder (Rx)


Rheaform Bolus (Rx)


Eqvalan (Rx)
Eqvalan Paste 1.8% (OTC)
Iversol (Rx)
Phoenectin Paste (OTC)
Phoenectin Liquid (OTC)
Primectin Equine Oral Liquid (Rx)

Levamisole Hydrochloride
Piperazine Dihydrochloride

Ripercol L-Piperazine (Rx)
Ripercol L-Piperazine Sol. (Rx)


Telmin Oral Susp.(Rx)
Telmin Equine Wormer (Rx)
Telmin Syringe Formula (OTC)


Telmin B (Rx)
Telmin-B Paste (OTC)

Meclofenamic Acid

Arquel (Rx)


Quest Oral Gel (OTC)


Equiproxen Granules (Rx)


GastroGard (Rx)


Benzelmin/Syanthic Powder (R/O)
Benzelmin/Synanthic Horse Wormer Pellets (R/O)
Benzelmin/Syanthic Paste (R/O)
Benzelmin/Syanthic Susp. (R/O)


Benzelmin Plus Paste (OTC)


Anthelcide EQ Paste (OTC)
Anthelcide EQ Suspension (Rx)


Parvex Plus (Rx)

Piperazine Dihydrochloride

Dyrex T.F.(Rx)


Bizolin Tabs/Boluses (Rx)
Butatron Gel (Rx)
Butazolidin Granules (Rx)
Butazolidin Bolus (Rx)
Butazolidin Paste (Rx)
Equi Bute Tablets (Rx)
Equiphen Paste (Rx)
Equipalazone (Rx)
Phen-Buta-Vet Tablets (Rx)
Phenylbutazone Tablets (Rx)
Robizone-V (Rx)
Tevcodyne (Rx)
Therazone Tablets (Rx)

Piperazine Adipate

Piperazine Adipate 100% (OTC)

Piperazine Carbon Disulfide

Parvex Bolus (OTC)
Parvex Suspension (Rx)


Marquis (Rx)

Promazine Hydrochloride

Promazine Granules (Rx)

Pyrantel Pamoate

Banminth-P Paste (OTC)
Strongid T (R/O)

Pyrantel Tartrate

Banminth (5.66 gm)(OTC)
Continuex (OTC)
Pyrantel Tartrate Premix (OTC)
Purina Horse & Colt Wormer Med (OTC)
Strongid C (OTC)


Sulmet (OTC)


Equizole A Packets (Rx)
Equizole Horse Wormer (Rx)
Equizole 50% Horse Wormer Paste (OTC)
Equizole Wormer Pellets (OTC)
Purina Horse Wormer Medicated (OTC)
Thibenzole 300 Medicated (OTC)

Piperazine Phosphate

Equizole A (Rx)

Piperazine Citrate

Equizole A Liquid (Rx)


Equizole B (Rx)


Tiox Granules (OTC)
Tiox Paste (OTC)

Triamcinolone Acetonide

Vetalog Oral Powder (Rx)


Dyrex Cap-Tab 200 (Rx)
Purina Bot Control (OTC)

Trimethoprim Sulfadiazine

DI-Trim 400 Paste (Rx)
Tribrissen 400 Oral Paste (Rx)
Tucoprim (OTC)
Uniprim Powder (Rx)


Active Ingredients

Brand Names

Balsam Peru Oil

Trypzyme Aerosol (OTC)

Chlorhexidine Diacetate

Nolvasan Germicidal Ointment (OTC)

Copper Naphthenate

Kopertox (OTC)
Thrush-XX (OTC)


Unitop Topical 0.5% Cream (Rx)

Dimethyl Sulfoxide

Domoso Gel (Rx)
Domoso Sol. (Rx)


Furall Aerosol Powder (OTC)
Topazone Aerosol Powder (OTC)

Neomycin Sulfate

Neo Predef Eye-Ear-Topical Ointment (Rx)

Isoflupredone Acetate
Tetracaine Hydrochloride
Neomycin Sulfate

Tritop Ointment (Rx)


Fura Ointment (OTC)
Fura-Septin (OTC)
Nitrofurazone Powder (OTC)
Nitrofurazone Ointment (OTC)
Nitrofurazone Dressing (OTC)
NFZ Dressing (OTC)
NFZ Wound Powder (OTC)


Dantafur (Rx)

Oxytetracycline Hydro-
chloride Polymyxin B Sulfate

Terramycin Ophthalmic Ointment (OTC)


Active Ingredients

Brand Names

Albuterol Sulfate

Torpex (Rx)


Fluothane (Rx)


Aerrane (Rx)
Isoflurane, USP (Rx)
Isoflo (Rx)


Active Ingredients

Brand Names

Amikacin Sulfate

Amiglyde-V (Rx)
Amikacin Intrauterine (Rx)


Nolvasan Tabs/Suspension (OTC)

Gentamicin Sulfate

Gentocin Solution (Rx)
Gentamicin Intrauterine (Rx)
Gentamicin Sulfate Solution (Rx)
Gentamex 100 Intrauterine (Rx)
Gentaglyde Sol. (Rx)


Sulmet Oblets (OTC)

horizonal rule

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